Wednesday, June 21, 2017
Tuesday, January 31, 2017
The book of Daniel stands apart from the rest of the book which make up the Old Testament. Though it is found in our English Bibles among the prophets, it does not contain proclamations in the name of the Lord as other prophets do; nor is it historical in the sense that the book if Kings are Historical, though it begins from a point in history and is clearly concerned with history.
II. Authorship of the book
The question of Daniel’s authorship of the book still remains undecided. The book of Daniel are much the story of Daniel rather than by Daniel. There has been much comment about who or what particular groups within Second Temple Judaism may then have been responsible for compiling and collecting the stories. The matter of authorship of the visions is somewhat more complex. Although they are largely implied in the first person, there is evidence of some edited material in the third person (7:1 and 10:1). Again, this means that the visions themselves have probably been collected and perhaps edited by another person or group, even if they are basically a set of visionary memories composed by Daniel himself.However, it is important whatstand that we adopt towards it rather than who we think wrote the material and when. We are called to receive the words of cp. 7-12 as authoritative scripture however imperfectly we may understand some of them.
The book of Daniel is normally characterized as apocalyptic literature, and in the process is sometimes set slightly apart for other biblical literature as a unique phenomenon in the Old Testament canon. It is evident from the shape of the book of Daniel that apocalyptic literature arises to some extent out of the wisdom tradition, there is also evidence that part of the seed bed of apocalyptic is the prophetic literature. So we see Daniel as an example as an example of literature which brings together the forces of apocalyptic thought with the great Hebrew traditions of wisdom and prophecy.
The main address opens by recapitulating this point and by emphasizing the reliability of what is to follow. Its announcement of events to come begins with a series of with a series of kings who seem to have the capacity to achieve much, but eventually fail or fall (11:2-9). There follows one- not clearly distinguished form his predecessors- whose two campaigns against the southern king, his being checked by a third force, his receiving support among Daniel’s own people, and his campaigning in the fairest land foreshadow acts of the last northern king (11:10-19).
This security grows increasingly important as Daniel 11-12 unfolds. Though space does not permit a full description of the events descried in 11:1-39, the text predicts historical details that transpire between the Persian period and Antiochus’ death. As in previous visions, this passage promises that evil will not triumph.
V. Analysis of the keyword: Truth
The understanding of the biblical view of the truth encounters special difficulties on account of the long and intricate history of the terminology. The English word “truth” is the common rendering of “aleteia” in the NT and the LXX. However, in both of them the term corresponds frequently to Hebrew “’mt”, a noun derived from the verb “’mn”, which means “to sustain, to support.” The basic meaning of the root is most clearly seen in the adjectival Niph‘al participle “n‘mn”, which is rendered “firm, solid, reliable” (Gen. 42:16), “faithful, tested” (Deut. 7:9; Isa. 1:21), “perceptible”, “true”, and “lasting”.
Since according to the OT everything in this world is created by God and has its destination through the divine purpose, for which it has been brought into being, God’s “truth” is to reflect itself in man’s life.
VI. Exegetical outline
The tribulation under Antiochus IV and Antichrist
A. Form the Persian Empire to the Death of Antichrist (vv. 2-4)
B. South vs North (vv. 5-9)
C. The fall of South (vv. 10-13)
VII. Expository explanation
The tribulation under Antiochus IV and Antichrist
A. From the Persian Empire to the Death of Antichrist (vv. 2-4)
The offer to tell… the truth recalls the “Book of Truth” in 10:21 where the same vocabulary is used. The verb translated “tell” almost always relates to some kind of divine revelation. And the phrase I tell you the truth is a final reminder that the angel is conveying all of this to Daniel. From here on the narrative becomes a chronicle of events, without further evidence of this background relationship until we rich chapter 12.
There are only fleeting references to Persia and Greece. Having said that, it is not entirely clear who the three more kings… in Persia, and then a fourth might be. In the first place, the Hebrew phraseology is ambiguous as to whether the fourth king is additional to the other three or the culmination of them. In these verses God’s hand is seen in the information that the empire of Alexander is to be “parceled out”, with on reference to who may be doing the parceling. This is a typical example of the “apocalyptic passive”. Another hint of God at work behind the scenes. Even at such a time as this, God is still sovereign over the nations of his world.
B. South vs North (vv. 5-9)
At first it is the king of the south (negeb) who dominates the scene. Our interpretation of south and north must be governed by the setting of the chapter, and not go beyond the boundaries of the world empires of the time. Though the king of Egypt is at first in control, one of his princes is to gain power. “His” means Alexander’s generals, and the verse indicates that Egypt’s king will face a rival whose empire will outstrip his own.
Verse 7 sets forth subsequent reprisal. Ptolemy Philadelphus died in 247 B.C., soon after the tragedy that had overtaken his daughter Berencie. But his capable son Ptolemy III (Euergetes) organized a great expeditionary force against Syria, in order to avenge his sister’s death. This war raged from 246 to 241, in the course of which Ptolemy captured and pillaged the Seleucid capital of Antioch and invaded its eastern domains as far as Bactria.
C. The Fall of South (vv. 10-13)
“His sons will commit themselves to war…”:Seleucus II was succeeded by his sons, Seleucus III and on his murder during a campaign in Turkey- Antiochus III. The latter attempted to turn the tide of aggressive power between the Seleucids and the Ptolemies, beginning in 219 by recapturing Seleucia. He was content with victory and the regaining of Palestine and Phoenicia, and did not press his advantage, making peace with Antiochus.
This passage, read simply within the narrative as we have it, claims to be history told beforehand in fairly well defined detail. As we have seen, often the kings referred to can be named, and the incidents delineated can be traced to actual happening. If we are to take the Bible seriously as a whole, we must maintain the view that God is God of the individual as well as of communities, and that he controls history in such a way as to give free play to human decision, and opportunity for genuine human repentance.
If we believe, therefore, that the account of the Seleucids and Ptolemies in our present chapter is a predictive prophecy, we must hold God worked his purpose out through the interaction of all these kings and these families. Daniel helps us to see the nonsense of trying to have faith unless at the same time we have hope in what is going to be at the time of the end. As writer of Ecclesiastes warns us in 7:15; 8:14.
In a time when Israel was suffering in exile, God gave Daniel comforting good news about God’s sovereignty, God’s providence, and the certainty of God’s glorious coming kingdom. God has been active in the history and he was sovereign over the kingdoms during the days of Daniel. He raised, whom he wanted and He demolished whom he willed. The whole book of Daniel show the sovereignty of YHWH. He is still working through the history and comforting the one in need. We just have to trust and have faith in Him that all things will work for the good of those who love God.
The book of Daniel consist of the history and visions to render a world. His vision creates radically different world that makes continuing life in this world possible on the basis of its not being the only world, or in the End the most important one. Daniel as a whole invites us to live this life in the light of such conviction that life.
 Tim Meadowcroft and Nate Irwin, The Book of Daniel (Singapore: Asian Theological Association, 1984), 12-13.
John E. Goldingay, Word Biblical Commentary: Daniel, (USA: Word Books, 1989), 287.
 Paul R. House, Old Testament Theology (USA: Inter-Varsity Press, 1998), 507.
 O. A. Piper, “Truth”, The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible (USA: Abingdon Press, 1986), 713-714.
Tim Meadowcroft and Nate Irwin, The Book of Danie, 220.
 Joyce G. Baldwin, Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries: Daniel, (USA: Inter-Varsity Press, 1978), 186.
 Gleason L. Archer, Jr. “Daniel”, the Expositor’s Bible Commentary, eds., Frank E. Gaebelein, (USA: Zondervan, 1985), 130.
 John E. Goldingay, Word Biblical Commentary: Daniel, (USA: Word Books, 1989), 296-297.
The word defines both a genre of literature and also the characteristic idea of this literature. Within the canon apocalyptic is represented especially by the books of Daniel and Revelation. This paper is concerned with the context, style and the themes of the Apocalyptic Literature, to say, that are the historical background for the introduction for this kind of literature and the style of the literature, specially it deals with the dualistic nature, esoteric and the symbolic nature of the literature. This paper later deals with the themes of the apocalyptic literature such as Antichrist, Messiah, Eschatology and Hope. Finally this paper concludes with the findings and the conclusion.
II. Context (historical background) of Apocalyptic literature
A type of religious thought which apparently originated in Zoroastrianism, the ancient Persian religion, taken over by Judaism in the exile and postexilic periods. Which was meditated by Judaism to early Christianity during around 200 B.C. to A.D. 100. Taking the roots for there, it had continued as an important element in popular Christian belief down to the present. Many factors concerning the historical milieu of apocalyptic literature debated among scholars. But all agrees that the Book of Daniel provides the prototype for this literary form and that apocalyptic writings arise out of a context of renewed Jewish nationalism, beginning with the Maccabean revolt. It is also generally agreed that the apocalyptic writings were written during times of intense persecution and crisis to give that hope and assurance of the sovereignty of God.
III. Style of Apocalyptic literature
Apocalypticism is essentially dualistic. This is not a metaphysical dualism of spirit and matter, instead it is the dualism of two opposing personified force in the universe, a good god and evil one, in Jewish thinking Yahweh, of course was the good God, whereas Satan as evil one, no longer merely Yahweh’s agent as the temper of mankind, was both God’s opponent and man’s oppressor. But due to the traditional monotheism belief the dualism was not so marked as it was in Persian thinking, Satan was clearly inferior to God, a times was considered to be just a fallen angel. It is most apparent, perhaps, in Revelation, where the greater number of the human and supernatural followers of God have their counterparts among Satan’s human and supernatural forces. The dualism has always been the style of the apocalyptic literature since its origin.
Esoteric simply means the secret things. The apocalyptic writings significance the revelation of the divine mysteries to certain illustrious individuals of Israel’s past, which are subsequently recorded in secret books for the instruction of God’s chosen remnant. The secrets are revealed to the God’s chosen people through dreams and vision.
Symbolism is one of the style of the apocalyptic literature, numerology is one of the characteristic of it. The book of Daniel and the considerable part of the book of Revelation is filled with the numeric symbolism. Furthermore characteristic is that of animal and bird symbolism, at times bizarre in character, and in part mythological or astrological in origin. This type of symbolism is present in certain apocalyptic literature. The beast of Daniel and Revelation are well known. Animal symbolization are also found in Isa. 24-27.So symbolism is one of the literature style of the apocalyptic literature.
IV. Themes of Apocalyptic literature
If we look at the Gospel then we can find time Jesus teaching and warning of false teaching, false Christ’s and false prophets. They will perform signs and miracles to deceived (Mark 13:6, 21-23). Don Flemming states that, “The Spirit of antichrist is always in the world and has shown itself in many way and in many people down the ages, as it will have its last and most violent expression in the final great rebellion against God immediately before the return of Christ (1 John 2:18; Dan. 9:27; 11:36-39)” Again Stephen Thorsan opines that, “John wrote not only that many antichrists had already come but also that a particular antichrist is coming (1 John 2: 18-22; 4:1-3), that is the man of lawlessness which had not yet been revealed; this man will do counterfeit miracles, signs and wonders and set him up in God’s temple, proclaiming himself to be God (1 Thess. 2:1-10; Rev.13:14-15)”
However Messiah is considered as the secondary feature of apoclaypticism, the Christian apocalypses must have a messiah-namely Jesus Christ (in his second advent, not his first). Jewish apocalypses may or may not have a messiah. None is presented in Isa. 24-27 and in Daniel, for the Danielic Son of man is actually the personification of the righteous remnant of Israel. On the other hand, the son of man a glorious and powerful pre-existed heavenly messiah, plays an important part in the similitude of Enoch.
Strictly speaking, without a messiah there can be no messianic kingdom between the present age ruled over by Satan and God’s future age. It is why the introduction into the pattern to provide a special but indefinite role to Jesus Christ on his return.
Eschatology is the term used to define the teaching form Scripture concerning the final consumption of all things. The ideas and concept come to expression in apocalyptic writings range broadly from ancient mythic motifs to biblical themes to speculation reflecting a Hellenistic milieu. As the genre “apocalypse” enjoys pride of place on the literary plane, a world view we can designate “apocalyptic eschatology” more frequently than any other perspective provides the conceptual framework. Eschatology can be understood as the study of end-time events, developed earlier in biblical prophecy. The perspective of apocalyptic eschatology can best be understood as an outgrowth form prophetic eschatology within which the diverse materials encompassed by the apocalyptic writings are interpreted.
In a special manner apocalyptic literature provides the sense of belonging to a larger historical pattern of reality and hence offers a framework for defining a sense of personal meaning. The great theological contribution of apocalyptic literature is that the hope for humanity can be radically transformed for the better. The transcendence of death in the form of bodily resurrection is seen by some as the supreme achievement of apocalyptic thought so we can conclude that the message of apocalyptic is one of hope in the final victory of the good over evil. There will be New Heaven and New Earth and he will establish the justice and
V. Our findings
Apocalypses is one of the hope for the people who are facing trouble, persecution and crisis. Apocalyptic literature has always been God’s way for comforting God’s people in need. During the exile the people of Judah faced many challenges regarding their faith and their religion. The situation after the exile was not so good. Greek and Roman rule kept the people in the need of the divine intervention. The situation that the people are facing can be compared with the situation then, believers are facing injustice for the local society level and also form the government level and as well as been persecuted because of their faith. Now in this situation the hope of the apocalypses comforts them by saying that the antichrist with be bitten down and the justice will be removed and the rule of the Son of man will be established and there will be justice and there will be peace and joy. The people who trust in the Lord will rule with the King of kings for thousand years and stay in peace and fellowship for eternity.
After the above mentioned facts we can conclusive say that the God is sovereign over the history and everything that has happened and will happen is in his control so we need not to fear for tomorrow but trust in the Lord.
M. Rist, “Apocalipticism”, The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, edited by George AothurButrick (USA: Abingdon Press, 1962), 157.
Ward Gasque, “Apocalyptic Literature”, The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, edited by Merrill C. Tenney (USA: Zondervan Publishing house, 1976), 200.
Ward Gasque, “Apocalyptic Literature”, The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible,202.
 M. Rist. “Apocalypticism”, The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, 158.
M. Rist. “Apocalypticism”, The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, 160.
M. Rist. “Apocalypticism”, The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, 160.
 Don Fleming, “Antichrist”, Bridge Bible Dictionary (Canada: Bridge way Publication, 1990), 20.
 Stephen Thorsan,,Theological Topics (Nepal: Samdan Publishers, 2010), 50.
 M. Rist, “Apocalyptic”, The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, 159.
 M. Rist, “Apocalyptic”, The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, 159-160.
 Paul D. Hanson, “Apocalypses and Apocalypticism”, Anchor Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, eds., David Noel Freedman, (U.S.A.: Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, 1992), 280-281.
 Zachary Hayes, “Pastoral-Liturgical Tradition”, The Collegeville Pastoral Dictionary of Biblical Theology, eds., Carroll Stuhlmuller (Bangalore: Theological Publications in India, 2011), 40.
It very important for any enthusiastic Christian to know about the history of the church. It is interesting how the promise that Jesus gave before his ascension to heaven of sending the Holy Spirit and his Disciples being witness form Jerusalem to the ends of the earth. One must have the clear understanding of the history of the early church to understand the work and ministry of the church in the present day context. One should have the faith and perseverance of the early Christians to be encouraged to live and preach the gospel like the first century Christians did. So this paper is an attempt to dig out the context and the development of the early church to encourage the believers today.
II. Definition of the Church
The word translated "church" in the English Bible is ekklesia. This word is the Greek words kaleo(to call), with the prefix ek (out). Thus, the word means "the called out ones." However, the English word "church" does not come from ekklesia but from the word kuriakon, which means "dedicated to the Lord." This word was commonly used to refer to a holy place or temple. By the time of Jerome's translation of the New Testament from Greek to Latin, it was customary to use a derivative of kuriakon to translate ekklesia.
The church is not a building; it is a group of people. It is not a denomination; it is everyone who has received the Holy Spirit. And it doesn't grant salvation; it is people, loving and glorifying God and teaching others about a saving knowledge of Christ. According to Paul Church is Christ's body on earth, bride of Christ. As believers, we are joined with all Christians from Peter to the smallest child in the body of Christ, encouraging, teaching, and building one another up in the knowledge and grace of the Lord Jesus Christ.
III. From Jerusalem to Rome
Gospels of Matthew clearly depicts how the coming of Christ has stablished the kingdom of God. How the life, death and resurrection of Jesus gave the new hope to the human kind and the same massage was preached in and through the life of the disciples of Jesus. The first Christians were Jews differentiated form their fellow countrymen by their faith that in Jesus of Nazareth the Messiah of the nation's expectation had now come. From the first church was deeply conscious of its solidarity with Israel, and of the continuity of God's action in the past with his present activity in Jesus of Nazareth and in his followers. At first Christianity must certainly have appeared only as one more sect or group within a Judaism that was already accustomed to considerable diversity in religious expression. The Book of Acts gives a detailed account of the growth and spread of the early church. Christianity spread with remarkable rapidity in Syria and north-westwards into Asia Minor and Greece.
A. In Jerusalem and in all Judea
The Old Testament had spoken again and again of the common dwelling of the Holy Spirit. In Acts chapter 2 fulfills the promise made in OT as we as the promise of Jesus not to live the disciples alone. Acts chapter 2 to 7 is all about the church in Jerusalem, how the church was established on the day of the Pentecost and its growth. At Pentecost Jesus sent Holy Spirit to strengthen the timid believers.All of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other languages, as the Spirit gave them the ability (Acts 2:4). Now there were devout Jews from every nation under heaven living in Jerusalem. And at this sound the crowd fathered and was bewildered, because each of one heard them speaking in the native language of each (Acts 2:5-6).
All were amazed and perplexed, saying to one another, "what does this mean?" but others sneered and said, "They are filled with new wine." But Peter, standing with the eleven, raised his voice and addressed them, "Men of Judea and all who live in Jerusalem, let this be known to you, and listen to what I say, indeed, these are not drunk, but they are filled with Holy Spirit, as prophet Joel has spoken. After his preaching great many numbers were converted to Christ, that day about 3000 men took baptism.
The life among the believers was one of the most wonderful things to see. They used to live in peace and harmony, sharing what they had.One day Peter and John were going up to the temple at the hour of prayer at afternoon. And a man lame from birth bagging in front of the gate named Beautiful. Peter and John saw him and Peter healed that man in the power of Holy Spirit. The witness of that man spared all over. Peter and John were bold enough to testify before the council. After the growth of the church, Apostle appointed 7 deacons to minister the believers and the church continued to grow in number.
B. In Samaria
After the death of Stephen in Acts 7:60, the severe persecution began against the church in Jerusalem, and all except the apostles were scattered throughout the countryside of Judea and Samaria. Those who were scattered went from place to place, proclaiming to word. Philip went down to the city of Samaria and proclaimed the Messiah to them. The crowds with one accord listened eagerly to what was said by Philip, hearing and seeing the signs that he did for unclean spirits, crying with loud shrieks, came out of many who were possessed; and many others who were paralyzed or lame were cured. So there was great joy in that city (Acts 8:4-7).
Again an angel of the Lord said to Philip. "Get up and go toward the south to the road that goes down from Jerusalem to Gaza." (Acts 8:27). Philip went there and met an Ethiopian eunuch, a court official of the Candace, queen of the Ethiopians, in charge of her entire treasury. He had come to Jerusalem to worship and was returning home. On the journey he was reading the prophet Isaiah. And Philip heard him and went to him, preached and baptized him.
C. To the Ends of the Earth
The Gospel spread beyond Samaria. Meanwhile Saul, still breathing threats and murder against the disciples of the Lord, went to the high priest and asked him for letters to the synagogues at Damascus, so that if he found any who belonged to the Way, men or women. He might bring them bound to Jerusalem. On the way to Damascus, Paul encounters the Lord and starts trusting in him. Paul then started preaching in Damascus and beyond. After Paul was introduced to Apostles by Barnabas in Jerusalem, both served the Lord in Antioch. In Acts 13 Barnabas and Paul were appointed as the missionary to the Gentile world. Paul traveled for 3 missionary journey to preach the Gospel in Galatia, Asia Minor, Macedonia and planting the church undergoing many ups and downs and severe persecution. Finally Paul was taken to Rome as a Prisoner.
IV. Faith and Order
The main moto of the early church was to preach the good news of Jesus Christ, that he has come, sacrificed himself for human sin and God raised Him from the dead, ascended to heaven, and is again coming back to judge the living and the dead. Anyone who believes in Jesus will be saved and will have the everlasting life. This is the good news that the early Christians had believed and preached to the rest of the word. For this very news they were willing even to die. The first Christians lived under a completely different set of principles and values than the rest of mankind. They rejected the world's entertainment, honors, and riches. They were already citizens of another kingdom, and they listened to the voice of a different Master. This was as true of the second century church as it was of the first.
At first the Christians were very simple fellowship of the followers of Jesus (Acts 2:42-46) with little or no organization. They continued to meet for worship in the temple, in the Jewish synagogues (Acts 3: 1ff.), and in homes (Acts 2:2; 12:12; 20:7-8). With the expansion of the Church i.e. with the growth of the church in number the church started needing the organizational structure. The loosely organized society that characterized the beginning of the church began to experience conflict (Acts 6:1-6) and the urgency for office and leadership in the church, other than the office of apostle, first arose from the conflict in the church over how to care for the needs of its people.
V. The Church Sacraments
Baptism is one of the sacrament which was explicitly commanded by Jesus to follow it. Generally the practice of Baptism in NT is to immerse or put completely under the water. Jesus commanded to preach the gospel and baptize whoever believes. According to Paul, faith and baptism are interlinked in such a way the theological understanding of faith that turns to the Lord for salvation and of baptism where in faith is declared is one and same. We find every time anyone believes in Jesus, they were baptize in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. The tradition of the observance may vary according to the context but the significance to baptism was always there. We can view the meaning of Baptism in three aspect; first, Death (ritual imitation of the crucifixion of Jesus with a moral application cf. Rom. 6:1-3; Luke 12:50), second, Life, (ritual imitation of the resurrection of Jesus with a moral application, regeneration or rebirth, bestowal of the Spirit), and third, Cleansing (moral purification, forgiveness of sins).
B. Lord's Supper
The Lord's Supper is not the Passover meal even if the root may seem like it, but it is the last supper taken place within the time frame of a Passover meal (Matt. 26:26; Mark 14:22; Luke 22:15-17). Luke mentions to clearly, these references to the "breaking of Bread" are understood as the fulfillment of Jesus command to "do this in remembrances of me". It is also known as "love feasts", in early church the Lord's Supper was celebrated in connection with love feast (Acts 2:42-46) where they continuing in the teachings of the Apostles and in fellowship (the love feast), the breaking of bread (the supper) and prayer. It is also called "the Lords Table" (1 Cor. 10:21) "communion" cup of blessing and breaking of bread. The word "Eucharist" was used by early church in Bible which means giving of thanks. The basic meaning if Lord's Supper is unity with Christ as well as with the Believers. In 1 Cor. 10 and 11, Paul gives a detailed information about the Holy Communion, why and how to take it. It is another sacrament which was and is most significant aspect of the Christian faith, in early church as well as today's church.
As we saw the history of the early Church according to the Book of Acts. The church then has to undergo through severe persecution but the believers stood firm in their faith, living and proclaiming the good news of Christ. They were very confident on the teachings of Jesus, the life, death, resurrection, ascension and second coming. Now as a church we have the delegated responsibility to preach gospel through our life and words. We also have the challenge to depend on the Holy Spirit for day to day life as well as to manage the church with the good administration so the every believer is given equal importance despite of their caste, class and education.
We are very blessed to read the history of the word turning upside down with the coming of the Holy Spirit, proclaiming the good news by the few timid disciple to the whole world and impacting the world.
 Henry Chadwick, The Early Church, (Australia: Penguin Books, 1971), 9.
Henry Chadwick, The Early Church,12-3.
 Early Christianity and its Sacred Literature, 226-27.
 G. R. Beasley Murray, "Baptism", Dictionary of Paul and His Letters, Edited by, Gerald F. Hawthrone(England: Inter-Varsity Press, 1993),62.
 D. E. Aune, "Worship, Early Christian", Anchor Bible Dictionary, Edited by, David Neol Freedman (USA: Doubleday, 1992), 986.
 R. H. Stein, "Lord's Supper", Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospel, Edited by, Joel B. Green (England: Inter-Varsity Press, 1992), 449.